 ```Hello Group, Hi Dick, Question to PA0SE: Dick, did you choose 1.5mm of diameter or radius? Some programs are using "radius" other "diameter"... Here are the results from simulations with MININEC algorithms. Ground: 0.005 S/m, 13 (dielectric const.) ```Diameter of all wires: 1.5 mm (copper and 0 for Rs) ```Max error of wire lengths: <1% Length of vertical section: 10m Lengths of segments: 1m ("pulses" for specialists...) I'm including the maximum gain as the program reports at "x-direction" (g in dBi) and some of Dick's results for comparison (">..."). ``````1. No top load Z = 0.073 - j 17792 (ohm) ``````z = 0.0824 - j17761 g = -6.6 dB ``````Rs: 7.8 milli-ohm ``````Rs = 0.0079 Ohms ``````2. One horizontal top load wire of 5 m Z = 0.111 - j 12550 ``````z = 0.1244 - j12533 g =-6.0 dB ``````Rs: 13.9 milli-ohm ``````Rs = 0.00138 Ohms ``````3. One top loading wire of 5 m, sloping down under 45 degrees ```Z = 0.108 - j 12993 ```z = 0.1195 - j12945 g = -6.7 dB ``````Rs: 11.2 milli-ohm ``````Rs = 0.0111 Ohms ``````4. One horizontal top loading wire of 10 m Z = 0.148 - j 9659 ``````z = 0.1663 - j9645 g = -6.1 dB ``````Rs: 17.6 milli-ohm ``````Rs = 0.0176 Ohms ``````5. One top loading wire of 10 m, sloping down under 45 degrees ```Z = 0.142 - j 9898 ```z = 0.1584 - j9896 g = -8.3 dB ``````Rs: 9.94 milli-ohm ``````Rs = 0.01 Ohms ``````6. One horizontal top loading wire of 20 m Z = 0.221 - j 6626 ``````z = 0.2479 - j6602 ```g = -6.7 ```Rs: 22.1 milli-ohm ``````Rs = 0.022 Ohms ``````7. Two horizontal top loading wires of 5 m (T-antenna) Z = 0.133 - j 9914 ``````z = 0.1491 - j9903 g = -5.7 ``````Rs: 17.4 milli-ohm ``````Rs = 0.0174 Ohms ``````8. Two top loading wires of 5 m, sloping down under 45 degrees Z = 0.127 - j 10466 ``````z = 0.1420 - j10430 g = -6.8 ``````Rs: 13.2 milli-ohm ``````Rs = 0.013 Ohms ``````9. Two horizontal top loading wires of 10 m (T-antenna) Z = 0.173 - 6793 ``````z = 0.1948 - j6786 g = -5.9 ``````Rs: 22.0 milli-ohm ``````Rs = 0.0219 Ohms ``````10. Two top loading wires of 10 m, sloping down under 45 degrees Z = 0.163 - j 6987 ``````z = 0.1843 - j7027 g = -8.8 ``````Rs: 10.6 milli-ohm ``````Rs = 0.0107 Ohms ``````11. Two horizontal top loading wires of 20 m (T-antenna) Z = 0.230 - j 4142 ``````z = 0.2593 - j4138 g = -6.4 ``````Rs: 26.0 milli-ohm ``````Rs = 0.0261 Ohms ``````12. Four horizontal top loading wires of 5 m (90 degrees between wires in horizontal plane) Z = 0.156 - j 7394 ``````z = 0.1748 - j7386 g = -5.6 ``````Rs: 21.4 milli-ohm ``````Rs = 0.0212 Ohms ``````13. Four top loading wires of 5 m, sloping down under 45 degrees Z = 0.147 - j 7948 ``````z = 0.1654 - j7985 g = -6.9 ``````Rs: 14.9 milli-ohm ``````Rs = 0.0148 Ohms ``````14. Four horizontal top loading wires of 10 m Z = 0.193 - j 4529 ``````z = 0.2165 - j4524 g = -5.7 ``````Rs: 25.9 milli-ohm ``````Rs = 0.0257 Ohms ``````15. Four top loading wires of 10 m, sloping down under 45 degrees Z = 0.180 - j 4689 ``````z = 0.2035 -j4726 g = -9.1 ``````Rs: 10.8 milli-ohm ``````Rs = 0.0109 Ohms ``````16. Four horizontal toploading wires of 20 m (T-antenna) Z = 0.232 - j 2493 ``````z = 0.2613 - j2492 g = -6 ``````Rs: 29 milli-ohm ``````Rs = 0.0289 Ohms O.K. Lots of numbers... 54°16'N / 10°04'E, JO54ag 73 es gl de Peter, DF3LP ```